EU P2B Regu­la­ti­on: also appli­ca­ble to cer­tain plat­forms in Switz­er­land as of July 12, 2020


Plat­form-based busi­ness models spread, among other things due to net­work effects (i.e., the effect that the uti­li­ty of a plat­form increa­ses dis­pro­por­tio­na­te­ly as the num­ber of users increa­ses; or that the value for a pro­vi­der increa­ses becau­se com­ple­men­ta­ry pro­ducts are available on the plat­form; or that the plat­form is impro­ved by lear­ning effects – i.e., data evaluations).

Pro­vi­ders can abu­se this power. The Euro­pean legis­la­tor has the­r­e­fo­re intro­du­ced the new Plat­form-To-Busi­ness Regu­la­ti­on (P2B-VO), which aims to redress the imba­lan­ce bet­ween plat­forms and their com­mer­cial users, among other things by spe­ci­fy­ing the con­tent of GTCs. The P2B Regu­la­ti­on will enter into force on July 12, 2020.


The P2B-VO applies to Online media­ti­on ser­vices and Online search engi­nesThe­se include tra­di­tio­nal mar­ket­places (e.g., eBay) and app stores, as well as social net­works (e.g., Face­book) and boo­king and pri­ce com­pa­ri­son por­tals, but not, for exam­p­le, pure B2B plat­forms wit­hout con­su­mer rele­van­ce and peer-to-peer inter­me­dia­ries in which no com­mer­cial pro­vi­ders are invol­ved, or pure payment ser­vices or online adver­ti­sing exchanges.

Ope­ra­tors of cover­ed ser­vices are cover­ed by the P2B-VP even if they are based in out­side the EU pro­vi­ded that two con­di­ti­ons are met. In order to under­stand the­se con­di­ti­ons, it is important to keep in mind that the P2B Regu­la­ti­on is not aimed at the rela­ti­on­ship bet­ween plat­forms and con­su­mers, but at that bet­ween plat­forms and the com­mer­cial users on the platform.

See reci­tal 6:

Sin­ce online inter­me­dia­ry ser­vices and online search engi­nes usual­ly have a glo­bal dimen­si­on, this Regu­la­ti­on should app­ly to pro­vi­ders of the­se ser­vices app­ly inde­pendent­lywhe­ther they are loca­ted in a Mem­ber Sta­te or Out­side the Uni­on are estab­lished, pro­vi­ded that two cumu­la­ti­ve con­di­ti­ons are met.

First­ly, the com­mer­cial users or the users with cor­po­ra­te web­site estab­lished in the Uni­on be

Second­ly, the com­mer­cial users or the users with busi­ness web­site should pro­vi­de their goods or ser­vices with the help of the­se ser­vices Offer con­su­mers who are in the Uni­on with respect to at least a por­ti­on of the transaction.

For the second requi­re­ment, the offer to con­su­mers in the EU, the tar­ge­ting cri­ter­ion applies, i.e. only the obvious tar­ge­ting of con­su­mers in a Mem­ber Sta­te is sufficient.

Plat­form pro­vi­der with Head­quar­ters in Switz­er­land the­r­e­fo­re fall under the P2B regu­la­ti­on if their com­mer­cial users tar­get end users in the EU.


The P2B Regu­la­ti­on initi­al­ly sets cer­tain requi­re­ments for Gene­ral terms and con­di­ti­ons of the plat­form pro­vi­derswhich, among other things, must be for­mu­la­ted in a clear and under­stan­da­ble man­ner, be rea­di­ly available and include a lar­ger num­ber of spe­ci­fic Spe­ci­fy points expli­ci­t­ly have to (among others, pro­duct ran­king cri­te­ria, access of com­mer­cial users to usa­ge data, fur­ther use of data by the plat­form pro­vi­der after the com­mer­cial user has left, pre­fe­ren­ti­al tre­at­ment of the plat­form operator’s own offers).

The­re are also spe­ci­fi­ca­ti­ons to the com­mu­ni­ca­ti­on about Chan­ges to the GTC and its enact­ment, and the plat­form must ensu­re that the Iden­ti­ty of com­mer­cial users cle­ar­ly reco­gnizable is. In addi­ti­on, when a ran­king or deli­sting is chan­ged due to a third-par­ty com­mu­ni­ca­ti­on, this com­mu­ni­ca­ti­on must be dis­c­lo­sed (anony­mously), and the P2B Regu­la­ti­on con­ta­ins requi­re­ments on Dis­pu­te reso­lu­ti­on mecha­nisms bet­ween plat­form and com­mer­cial users.

Con­se­quen­ces of an injury

Gene­ral terms and con­di­ti­ons of the plat­form ope­ra­tor that do not com­ply with the requi­re­ments of the P2B Regu­la­ti­on may be null and void, and vio­la­ti­ons may be sub­ject to a war­ning. In addi­ti­on, the mem­ber sta­tes must ensu­re enforce­ment at the natio­nal level, for which “effec­ti­ve, pro­por­tio­na­te and dissua­si­ve” mea­su­res must be taken.




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